Advisories

Automatic External Defibrillator (AED)

An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that checks the heart rhythm. If needed, it can send an electric shock to the heart to try to restore a normal rhythm. AEDs are used to treat sudden cardiac arrest (SCA).

SCA is a condition in which the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating. When this happens, blood stops flowing to the brain and other vital organs.

SCA usually causes death if it's not treated within minutes. In fact, each minute of SCA leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Using an AED on a person who is having SCA may save the person's life.

AEDs are lightweight, battery-operated, portable devices that are easy to use. Each unit comes with instructions, and the device will even give you voice prompts to let you know if and when you should send a shock to the heart.

Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR course are helpful. However, if trained personnel aren't available, untrained people also can use an AED to help save someone's life. Cardiac Science AED Demo 

Chaffey College Layperson Responder AED Locations:

  • Aeronautics 
  • Child Development
  • (CHMB) Chino Campus Admissions and Records
  • (FNAC) Fontana Campus Academic Center
  • Health Sciences division office 
  • Maintenance and Operations Office 
  • (SSA) Rancho Cucamonga Campus Admissions and Records 
  • (MACC 202) Rancho SHS Office 
  • Pool Building 
  • Sicosky Gym
  • Softball building 
  • Sports Center 


Trained Responder Aeds Are At The Following Locations:

  • Athletic Trainer (during practices)
  • Campus Police 
  • Chino SHS, MIB 105 
  • Rancho Cucamonga SHS emergency mobile equipment

 

Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) 

Ebola, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus strains. Ebola can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).

Ebola is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. There are five identified Ebola virus strains, four of which are known to cause disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans.

Ebola viruses are found in several African countries. Ebola was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Since then, outbreaks have appeared sporadically in Africa.

The natural reservoir host of Ebola virus remains unknown. However, on the basis of evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is animal-borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir. Four of the five virus strains occur in an animal host native to Africa. 

Learn more at the CDCs website.

 

Enterovirus D68

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is one of more than 100 non-polio enteroviruses. This virus was first identified in California in 1962.

In general, infants, children, and teenagers are most likely to get infected with enteroviruses and become ill. That's because they do not yet have immunity (protection) from previous exposures to these viruses. We believe this is also true for EV-D68. Adults can get infected with enteroviruses, but they are more likely to have no symptoms or mild symptoms.

Children with asthma may have a higher risk for severe respiratory illness caused by EV-D68 infection.

Visit the CDC’s website for additional information about the enterovirus.


Influenza (Flu)

Check for influenza updates at the www.flu.gov website.

Chaffey College student health services (SHS) closely monitors flu developments and keeps contact with the San Bernardino County Public Health Department. We are following their guidelines as well as those established by the Center for Disease Control. 

Student health services monitors students exhibiting signs of influenza. 

If you have the following symptoms, individuals are advised to seek care:

  • Fever (100 degrees and higher)

  • Cough

  • Sore throat

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Body aches

  • Headache

  • Chills

  • Fatigue

Currently enrolled students should consult their private health care provider or student health services.

Employees: If you have similar symptoms, please consult your health care provider for diagnosis and treatment. 

What to Do to Stay Healthy

  • Try to stay in good general health. Get plenty of sleep, fluids, and eat nutritious foods.

  • Manage stress and be physically active.

  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water (15-20 seconds) especially after you cough or sneeze.

  • The virus can live on inanimate objects, so wash your hands frequently after touching door handles, railing, keyboards, water faucets or other public objects.

  • Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective.

  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread that way.

  • Think carefully about nonessential travel.

  • Do not share cups or eating utensils.

  • Try to avoid close contact with sick people. Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-to-person through coughing or sneezing of infected people.

If you get sick, the CDC recommends that you stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.

Some Informational Fliers Regarding the Flu:

  • Cover Your Cough 

  • H1N1 Take Three 

  • Clean Hands Save Lives 

  • Is it a cold or the flu? 

 

Additional information about influenza can be obtained from these websites:

 

Measles 

Measles is a highly contagious and potentially severe disease that causes fever, rash, cough, and red, watery eyes. Measles spreads very easily by air and by direct contact with an infected person. Measles is contagious from approximately four days before the rash appears through four days after the rash appears. The DPH has been working with the places listed below to contact people who may have been exposed to these cases. As a precaution, people who were in the below locations around the same time as the individual with measles should:

  • Monitor themselves for illness with fever and/or an unexplained rash from 7 days to 21 days after their exposure (the time period when symptoms may develop); if symptoms develop, stay at home and call a health care provider immediately or the DPH at 800-722-4794.

  • Do not visit a health care provider without first notifying them of your potential exposure.


Measles is a rare disease in the United States and in regions of the world where vaccination coverage is high. Maintaining high vaccination rates is vital to prevent outbreaks of disease in our community. Given the recent cases identified here and in other jurisdictions in Southern California, additional cases are expected and vaccination is key in preventing infection from future exposures.

For detailed information about measles, please visit:

 

Meningoccal Meningitis Infections

For further information, contact the public health department at 800-722-4794

Meningococcal meningitis is one of two serious infections caused by the bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis, the other being infection of the blood, or "meningococcemia." Meningitis is an infection of the meninges, the membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord. Meningococcal meningitis is more common in late winter and early spring, though it can occur any time of year. 

Anyone can get meningococcal meningitis, but it is more frequent in children under 5 years old, and young adults from 15 to 25 years old. The elderly, some people with specific blood disorders and people who have lost their spleen are also more likely to become ill with meningococcal disease.

Meningococcal bacteria are found in the nose and throat of up to 25% of healthy people at any given time. Normally, these bacteria do not cause any problems, or any infection.

Meningococcal bacteria can pass from person to person through close contact involving sharing of saliva (spit) or direct contact with respiratory secretions such as nasal mucous (snot) and sputum (coughed up from the chest.). Because the bacteria can't live for more than a few minutes outside the body, they don't usually spread via water supplies, swimming pools, or through routine contact in classrooms, dining rooms, restrooms, bars, planes, etc.

For reasons that are not understood, in a very small number of people, the meningococcal bacteria can suddenly become invasive, and cause an infection of the meninges or of the blood.

The early symptoms of meningococcal meningitis are much like those of many flu-like illnesses: fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, and feeling sick and irritable.

A stiff neck, however, may mean meningitis. Anyone with fever, a sudden severe headache, and a stiff neck should see a doctor - right away if the illness is getting worse, or if drowsiness or confusion develops. Meningococcal infection gets worse fast, and in most cases, requires admission to hospital.

Meningococcal infection often causes a blotchy purple rash, usually quite small to start with, resulting from bleeding under the skin. This usually occurs late in the illness, by which time the person should already be receiving emergency medical care.

Symptoms usually start 3 to 4 days after exposure to the meningococcal bacteria, but this can vary from as early as 2 days to as late as 10 days.

Early meningococcal meningitis may look similar to a "bad cold." Think of possible meningitis if:

The illness becomes more severe than usual for a bad cold
There is high fever and severe headache
The person's neck is stiff and it hurts when s/he tries to touch his/her chin to his/her chest
There is drowsiness, confusion, or other unusual symptoms
A blotchy purple rash (late sign, don't wait for the rash!)
If this happens, see a doctor as soon as possible, preferably at the nearest hospital emergency room.

Meningococcal infection is suspected when someone has a fever, stiff neck, and pain on bending their head forward. Looking through a microscope at a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord) can show meningococcal bacteria. Culturing the blood and cerebrospinal fluid grows the bacteria, proving that they are meningococcal, and allows the strain type to be determined.

Yes, meningococcal meningitis is treated with antibiotics. Most patients recover completely. The earlier treatment is begun, the better it works, so it is important that the diagnosis be made as early as possible.

An infected person is infectious from 7 days before the first signs of illness (10 days before definite signs of illness) until 24 hours after starting to take one of the antibiotics rifampin, ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone.

It is difficult to prevent "sporadic" meningococcal infections, i.e., the infections that "just happen" when meningococcus in someone's throat suddenly becomes invasive.

Certain antibiotics will prevent infection in contacts (people who may have shared saliva or been exposed to respiratory secretions of someone who has meningitis.)

  • People, especially young children, who lived or usually ate in the same house, or shared a bed with someone who has meningococcal meningitis

  • People, especially young children, who went to the same day care or child care as someone who has meningococcal meningitis

  • People who kissed or who shared any of the following with someone with meningococcal meningitis:

  • eating utensils, straws, water bottles, bottles of pop or other drinks

  • cigarettes

  • mouth guards, toothbrushes, wind instrument mouth-pieces

  • mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or unprotected contact during endotracheal intubation

  • Casual social contacts of the patient

  • People who have been in the same office, work-place, classroom, car, train, bus, etc. with the patient but have no intimate contact and none of the sharing noted above

  • Health care workers who have no direct exposure to the patient's oral secretions

  • People who have close contact with a close contact (as noted above) of the patient, but have not themselves had close contact with the patient (A possible exception may be a child under one year old who is a close contact of another child under one year old who is in turn a close contact of someone who has meningococcal meningitis. In this case, ask the local Health Unit for advice.)

  • Friends, family, and other personal contacts are usually contacted by their local Health Department. The Infection Control Nurse of the health care facility usually contacts health care worker contacts.

Cultures of the nose and throat of a contact are absolutely no help in deciding whether or not preventive antibiotics are needed and therefore should not be done.

Should people who have been in contact with a person diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis be treated?
Only people who have been in close contact (household members, intimate contacts, health care personnel performing mouth to mouth resuscitation, day care center playmates) need to be considered for preventive treatment. Such people are advised to obtain a prescription, usually for rifampin, from their physician. Please see the table below for recommended antibiotics and dosages. Casual contact, like that which might occur in a regular classroom, office, or factory setting is usually not significant enough to cause concern. Those who have been in close contact with someone diagnosed with meningococcal meningitis should watch for early signs of illness -- especially fever -- and seek treatment promptly.

 

Drug

Children

Adults

Ciprofloxacin
oral

See note below

500 mg, one dose

 

Not to be used in pregnant or lactating women. 
The use of ciprofloxacin in children <18 years as chemoprophylaxis for N. meningitidis is not approved by the FDA, however studies indicate it is safe and effective. Reports of adverse events in children have been rare after widespread off-label use. For further information, see 2/14/01 and 3/04/01 issues of CD Brief and the 2006 AAP guidelines on the use of quinolones.

 

Rifampin
oral

< 1 month: 5 mg/kg q12h for 2 days (= 4 doses) 
> 1 month: 10 mg/kg q12h for 2 days (= 4 doses) 
> 60 kg body weight: 600 mg q12h for 2 days (= 4 doses)

600 mg q12h for 2 days (= 4 doses)

 

May reduce effectiveness of oral contraceptives, some anticonvulsants and some anticoagulation medications. 
Stains with an orange tint body secretions temporarily and contact lenses permanently.

 

Ceftriaxone
intramuscular injection

< 15 years of age: 125 mg, one dose

250 mg, one dose

 

May reduce effectiveness of oral contraceptives, some anticonvulsants and some anticoagulation medications. 
Stains with an orange tint body secretions temporarily and contact lenses permanently.

 

 

Dilute in 1% lidocaine to reduce pain of injection

 

Azithromycin
oral

The lesser of 10 mg/kg or 500 mg, one dose

The lesser of 10 mg/kg or 500 mg, one dose

 

Can be used when resistance to other agents suspected. Appears effective after limited evaluation. Susceptibility of N. meningitidis to azithromycin in U.S. should be monitored.

  

Mumps

Mumps is a viral infection that often involves the swelling of the salivary glands. It is spread by coughing and sneezing. Complications from mumps can include meningitis, inflammation of the testicles or ovaries, inflammation of the pancreas, and deafness. Anyone who is not immune from either previous mumps infection or from vaccination can get mumps. 

Children should get their first dose of the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine at 12 months old or later. The second dose of MMRV is usually administered before the child begins kindergarten, but may be given one month or more after the first dose. Students (including college students), health care workers, and international travelers should receive two doses of MMR vaccine. 

Signs and Symtoms of Mumps

Mumps is an acute viral infection with a nonspecific symptoms that include:

  • Puffy cheeks

  • Swollen jaw (the result of swollen salivary glands)

  • Fever

  • Headache

  • Muscle aches

  • Loss of appetite

  • Swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides (parotitis) in 60-70 percent of cases

 

It can cause:

  • Debilitating inflammation of the testicles or ovaries may follow

  • Complications include encephalitis

  • Spontaneous abortion

  • Deafness

In recent mumps outbreaks most cases report having received two doses of MMR vaccine; a history of appropriate vaccination does not rule out mumps in persons with compatible symptoms.

Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after infection, but this period can range from 12-25 days after infection. Some people who get mumps have very mild or no symptoms, and often they do not know they have the disease. Most people with mumps recover completely in a few weeks 

For detailed information, please use these links:

Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

For daily updates check the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)

Chaffey College Student Health Services (SHS) is closely monitoring pertussis developments and is in contact with the San Bernardino County Public Health Department.

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) is Epidemic

California Department of Public Health Offers Expanded Immunization Recommendations

Pertussis (whooping cough) is epidemic in California. As of July 13, 2010, 1,496 cases of Pertussis have been reported to CDPH in 2010, a 5-fold increase from the same interval in 2009. Six infants too young to be immunized are known to have died of Pertussis so far in 2010, in comparison to 3 deaths in all of 2009. California is on pace to have the most Pertussis cases reported in over 50 years. 

In summary, CDPH is strongly recommending a Tdap booster shot for all adolescents and adults (10 or more years of age) who have not yet received a documented dose, including those older than 64 years of age. In contrast, the most recent Center for Disease Control(CDC) survey data indicates that 44% of adolescents in California and only 6% of adults nationwide have received a Tdap booster shot by 2008.

Immunization with Tdap is especially important for

  • Health Care Workers, particularly those who have direct contact with infants and pregnant women;

  • Women of childbearing age – preferably before pregnancy, or during or immediately after pregnancy;

  • Other close contacts of infants, including other family members and caregivers;

  • Patients with wounds 7 years and older should receive Tdap instead of Td or TT when immunization is indicated to prevent tetanus.

CDPH strongly recommends that all children receive their recommended doses of DTaP on time. The first dose is typically given at 2 months of age but may be given as early as 6 weeks. Children 7-9 years of age who did not receive all of their routine childhood DTaP vaccine doses are recommended to receive Tdap to help protect them against Pertussis.

 San Bernardino Public Health Department:
Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

What You Need to Know
Whooping cough — known medically as pertussis — is a very contagious bacterial disease. It can cause serious illness in infants, children and adults. Infants are most at risk, because they are too young to be fully vaccinated. 

Symptoms
The disease starts like a common cold, but after one to two weeks, severe coughing begins. Infants and children with the disease cough violently and rapidly, over and over, until the air is gone from their lungs and they're forced to inhale with a loud "whooping" sound. 

Pertussis is most severe for babies. More than half of infants less than 1 year of age who get the disease must be hospitalized. About 1 in 20 infants with pertussis get pneumonia (lung infection), and about 1 in 100 will have convulsions. In rare cases, it can cause death. 

How Pertussis Spreads
Whooping cough is most contagious before the coughing starts. People with pertussis can spread the disease by coughing or sneezing while in close contact with others, who then breathe in the pertussis bacteria. Many infants are infected by parents, older siblings, or other caregivers who might not even know they have the disease. 

Pertussis in California
Pertussis is now an epidemic in the state. There have been 910 cases reported since June 15, 2010, compared to only 219 cases at this time last year. Five infants – all under three months of age – have died from the disease since January. One death was in San Bernardino County this spring. 

How to Prevent Pertussis
Parents can help protect very young infants by reducing contact with persons who have cold symptoms or cough illness. However, the best way to prevent pertussis is to get vaccinated. The childhood vaccine is called DTaP. The whooping cough booster vaccine for adolescents and adults is called Tdap. These are safe and effective vaccines that protect against three diseases: whooping cough, tetanus and diphtheria. 

Pertussis vaccination begins at 2 months of age, but young infants won't be protected until the vaccine series of three shots is complete at 6 months of age. Vaccine protection does not last a lifetime. Adults ages 18 – 64 years who have contact with infants under 12 months of age, are urged to get a single dose of the Tdap booster. This includes parents, family members, child care workers, and health care workers who haven't received this vaccine. Afterward, adults should get the standard Td (tetanus and diphtheria) booster every ten years. 

Pregnant women and fathers are advised to get vaccinated either before or immediately after the birth of their baby. During pregnancy, women can get Tdap beginning in the second trimester, but not before 12 weeks gestation. 

Infants, children and teens are strongly encouraged to follow the 2010 Vaccination Schedule, recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

Talk to your health care provider about what's best for your specific needs. 

Public Health Clinics in San Bernardino County

Pertussis vaccine is available at all clinic sites in the County. There is a $10 fee for the vaccine. To make an appointment and get clinic schedules call 800 722-4777. 

Resources for More Information

California Department of Public Health press release on June 23, 2010 "Whooping Cough Epidemic May Be Worst in 50 Years

Additional information about pertussis can be obtained from these websites:

 

Tuberculosis (TB)

TB Fact Sheet 
TB Fact Sheet (Espanol) 

For questions regarding tuberculosis, please contact the public health department at:

San Bernardino County Public Health Department
800-782-4264
Local referral calls:
909-387-6280
909-378-6359 TDD

Additional information about TB can be obtained from these websites:

California Department of Public Health
www.cdph.ca.gov/Healthinfo

United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
www.cdc.gov

United States Department of Health and Human Services
www.hhs.gov

United Nations World Health Organization
www.who.int

 

 Zika Virus

On January 22, 2016, CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to respond to outbreaks of Zika occurring in the Americas and increased reports of birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome in areas affected by Zika. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) because of clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders in some areas affected by Zika. On February 8, 2016, CDC elevated its EOC activation to a Level 1, the highest level.

The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week. 

See your healthcare provider if you develop the symptoms described above and have visited an area where Zika is found.

If you have recently traveled, tell your healthcare provider when and where you traveled.

Your healthcare provider may order specialized blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viruses like dengue or chikungunya.

For detailed information visit the Centers for Disease Control’s Zika virus page.